Asia: Philippines

Current Status: unknown

Philippines Press Councils

Philippine Press Institute Press Council 

Mr Gary Mariano (Chair); Ariel Sebellino (secretariat)

c/o Philippine Press Institute

Room 312

BF Condominium Bldg

A. Soriano Ave.

Intramuros, Manila

Tel: 632 52 79 362

Fax: 632 52 73 390



The first Press Council to be established in the Philippines was enacted by Republic Act Number 4363, on June 19, 1965. The law states that newspapermen should elect members of a Press Council, which would promote a Code of Ethics for the Philippine press and the Council, and investigate any violation of the said Code. In 1972, the Council was abolished with the proclamation of martial law.

A year later, President Marcos formed the Media Advisory Council (MAC) through Presidential Decree 191. The MAC was tasked to oversee the approval of operations of all forms of news media and to perform functions that are similar to the previous councils. The MAC was short-lived, and was replaced by the Philippine Council for Print Media (PCPM) in 1974.

The Philippine Press Council was revived after Marcos’ ouster in 1987. A group of eminent journalists and of newspaper editors urged the PPI Board of Trustees to form a committee that would consider the establishment of a new Council. ??In 1993, the current Philippine Press Council was formally founded by the Philippine Press Institute (PPI). Its members are editors of national newspapers represented of the PPI Board of Trustees. ??In 1997, the Philippine Press Institute and the National Press Club adopted the Journalists' Code of Ethics. In 2001, membership was extended to include representatives from the academic, business, and legal sectors.

The Press Council now is a regulatory body within the Philippine Press Institute, the national organization of newspapers, to guarantee every news subject’s right of reply. It is composed of the editor of each of the Institute’s member newspapers (national broadsheets and/or the ones being represented in the PPI Board). Its members select from them an executive director, a chairman, a vice chairman, a secretary and a treasurer, all serving for one year. It meets fortnight or oftener, as it may require (or depending on the availability of the members).

What does it hope to achieve? Its best hope is that its works like the ounce of prevention that is worth a pound of cure; that it makes the newspapers, on pain of censure, more responsible; that is makes them realize that not only is it fundamentally fair, but in their best interests to present all sides to a story at once; and that, by themselves providing a means of redress to aggrieved news subjects, the newspapers increase their credibility and decrease their susceptibility to court action.

How does it operate? It operates on two levels: a Council Secretariat screens all complaints to determine their legitimacy before elevating any of them to the Council for resolution. The Council Secretariat is run by an executive director/chairperson, one expected to have an understanding of the news business, but professionally detached from it, preferably not on the staff of any of the newspapers represented in the Council, if only to affirm its commitment to a fair process.

How does the Secretariat determine the legitimacy of a complaint? Upon receiving a complaint, the Secretariat sends a copy of it, along with a letter from the Council Chairman, to the newspaper concerned and requires a written reply within 72 hours. On the basis of the two documents, the Secretariat decided whether or not to elevate the case to the Council. If the newspaper fails to reply on time, the Council takes automatic action over the case. ?Nuisance complaints are dropped outright.

How does the Council makes it decisions? The Council decides by consensus, and takes any of the following actions:

  1. Requires a newspaper to publish the disregarded sided of the story or an issue, and, if it refuses to do that, cause the publication of the Council’s findings on the case in the other newspapers and in Press Forum, the Institute’s publication.
  2. Returns the case to the Secretariat for further inquiry, if the Council feels sufficient merit has not been established for the case to warrant a Council proceeding.
  3. Drops the case, if the Council feels it unmeritorious, notwithstanding the endorsement from the Secretariat. ?Any appeal for unsatisfactory redress goes through the same process as the first complaint.

Cebu Citizens-Press Council

Regional press council

Dr. Pureza Oate (Chairwoman)

MBF Cebu Press Center

Sudlon, Lahug, Cebu City

Telephone: +63 414 7980

Fax: +63 414 7982


Organization of the Cebu Citizens-Press Council (CCPC) started in 2001 yet, shortly after three Cebu journalists–Eileen G. Mangubat of the Cebu Daily News, Noel Pangilinan of The Freeman, and Pachico A. Seares of Sun.Star Cebu–talked in Manila with Marvin Tort, then executive director of the Philippine Press Council, about setting up a local press council.

Mangubat, Pangilinan and Seares were joined in Cebu by veteran journalist Juan L. Mercado in laying the groundwork for the organization.

The CCPC with its prospective members last met on Sept. 16, 2002 at the Laguna Garden Cafe. There, Seares presented the proposed basic rules of CCPC, adopted from foreign models and from consultations with other convenors and based on the local experience.

Since then, there had been a hibernation of almost three years, caused mainly by the individual papers’ other pressing concerns.

That lasted until last Sept. 1, 2005 when Jerry Tundag of The Freeman, Marit Remonde of the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster sa Pilipinas, Michelle So and Seares of Sun.Star, Joy Tumulak of CFBJ, Mayette Tabada of UP in the Visayas Cebu College, Mercado and Mangubat met at Bo’s Coffee Club in Ayala Center Cebu to take up the matter of reviving CCPC.

Everyone pushed for the council but wasn’t keen about taking the lead. All declined for one reason or another. After Mangubat said her paper is interested in forming its own in-house press council but still supports the CCPC, Seares volunteered for Sun.Star to lead the revival. The group meeting ended with that consensus.


Updated: 31/03/2016


Baguio Citizens' Press Complaints Board

Regional press council

Ms. Sonia Daoas, Cordillera News Agency, Tel. (63 74) 442 5867

Mr Rolly Fernandez, Philippine Daily Inquirer, Norther Luzon Bureau, Tel. (63 74) 442 3539

Atty. Antonio Pekas, Zigzag Weekly, Tel. (63 74) 300 2167

Tel: (074) 442 5867 - 442 3539 - 300 2167

Fax: NA

Email: (Sonia Daoas)


As of April 2005, in hibernation. Never really took off. Is considering a rebirth, possibly in association with the national PC.

Palawan Community Media Council

Regional press council

Mr Oscar Evangelista (Chair) Lanie Carriedo (secretary)

c/o Bandillo ng Palawan

2/F Escamilla Building

Rizal Avenue

Puerto Princesa City

Tel: (63 48) 434 2882

Fax: (63 48) 434 2882



As of April 2005, in a state of hibernation.

Last Update - Aug 2006